Therefore the rising periods in the different latitudes must be definitely known before casting a horoscope. To be more clear, the rising periods on the equator where the Charakhanda is zero—being known, it is possible to calculate the Rasimanas for any latitude, provided, its Charakhandas are also known.
Rising Periods on the Equator. That is, in the case of from Aries to Gemini and from Capricorn to Pisces, subtract the Charakhandas and from Cancer to Virgo and from Libra to Sagittarius add the Charakhandas of the required place and the rising periods of signs there, are obtained. These must be applied to any one of four triads as given above, into which the zodiacal signs are divided—commencing always from the Sayana Mesha, i.
The following examples will clear the meaning. Aries 1, — 1, 4 12 2. Gemini 1, — 53 1, 5 13 4. Capricorn 1, 1, — 1, 4 30f Pisces 1, — 2 5.
Duration of Signs in South Latitudes. The additive and subtractive Charakhandas of North Latitudes, become subtractive and additive respectively, in case of South Latitudes.
It is to be noted that signs of short ascension in N. Latitudes are signs of long ascension in S. Apparent Time of Rising and Setting of the Sun. Since the Sun has a definite diameter, the interval between the moment of the appearance of the,first ray at the horizon, and the moment at which the Sun is just clear off the horizon, is some 5 or 6 minutes. If this is so, which represents the exact moment of sunrise?
It must also be noted that on account of the refraction of the solar rays, due to the various strata enveloping the earth, the Sun is not really at the horizon where he appears to be so but is really below the horizon by about a few minutes of arc Rekha. But we can take the apparent time as almost correct and need not worry ourselves with the so called delicate correct time of rising.
The apparent noon is almost the same for all places. If we knew either of these arcs, we could find out sunrise and sunset. On these two days the declination kranti of the Sun is zero.
During his northerly course, when he will ha,ve a north declination, the duration of days is longer than that of nights, i. During his southerly course, when he will have a south declination, the duration of days is longer than that of nights in south latitudes, and the reverse holds good for north latitudes. Hindu Method of Determination of Sunrise and of Sunset. This can be done from any local reliable almanac. See Chapter VII for determining longitudes of planets. To this add Ayanamsa and the Sayana Ravi at sunrise is obtained: By converting the approximate time local of sunrise to Greenwich mean time, the position of Sayana Surya—for sunrise can be found out.
Then find out the Bhuja distance from the nearest equinoctial point as follows: The Charakhandas given in three numbers are called the Adi first , Madhya middle and Anthya last Charakhandas. The Adichara- khanda itself will be the first khanda ; this plus the madhya, the second khanda ; and the sum of the three Charakhandas , the third khanda. The quotient represents the khanda. Keep the remainder as it is and then apply the rule: The result is chara. Then the required quantity itself will be chara. If the Sayana Sun is in Uttara north Gola hemisphere , i.
If he is in the Southern Gola from Libra to Pisces subtract this from 15 ghatis. The result is Dinardha half diurnal duration. Twice this is the length of day. This deducted from 60 ghatis 24 hours gives the length of night. Convert Dinardha into hours, etc. The apparent time of sunset and of sunrise respectively of the place are bbtained. Long, on 16th October A.
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First Middle Last Adi. Some say, that this method is riddled with certain errors. I have spoken sufficiently about the supposed errors that have crept into Hindu calculations in the Introduction to this book. I shall also give below, the modern method of the calculation of sunrise and of sunset and the reader can adopt whichever he prefers. I shall apply this method to the examples worked out for the Hindu method so that the results in both the cases may be compared.
Those who want to adopt the Hindu method may do so: Note down the latitude of the place and apply the following formula. The reverse holds good for places in south latitudes. The result is local apparent time of setting. This subtracted from 12 hours gives local apparent time of sunrise. Long, on 16th October This converted to G.
The difference between Greenwich Mean Noon and G.
Therefore, we may take the declination of the Sun at G. The declination may be determined for 12 h. This converted into G. We obtain by the above methods the apparent time of sunrise. For this must be applied the equation of time in order to get the mean time, i. Method of the Determination of Equation of Time to get. Mean Time from Apparent Time. Sayana Longitude of Sun at G.
October 1 fi was r — m iyi2, as applied to apparent time of sunrise at Dacca. This must be added to the Apparent Time of sunrise in order to get the Mean Time of sunrise. Mean Time of Sunrise and of Sunset.
Add or subtract the Equation of Time to or from the apparent time of sunrise or of sunset , the respective Mean Time is obtained. The Equation of Time is positive, i. The apparent time of sunrise was 6 8 a.
follow The apparent time of sunrise was 7 10 A. Calculate the Apparent Time of sunrise and of sunset according to the Hindu method as given in Article Then instead of working out the problem for ascertaining the Equation of Time, the reader may conveniently find out the Equation of Time by referring to Table III, given at the end of the book.
Then apply this Equation of Time to get the Mean Time of sunrise and of sunset by adopting the rules contained in Article It begins with a Tatpara and ends in a Kalpa equal to 4,,, Sidereal years. The Hindu day an apparent solar day begins from sunrise and ends with the next sunrise. This is known as Nakshatra Dina among the Hindus and this is the time the fixed stars take to come round the Pole once.
This is longer than the Sidereal day by about four minutes.
Two kinds of months are generally in vogue among the Hindus, viz. The Chandramana is based upon the movements of the Moon in the celestial circle. The Solar month is the time, the Sun takes to move in one sign.
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The month varies in duration according to the number of days the Sun takes to move in a sign. When the Sun enters into the new sign during the course of the lunation, the month is intercalary Adhika Masa and is baptised by the name of that which precedes or succeeds it with some prefix to distinguish it from the regular month. The Hindus have a Solar rather Sidereal year, which is their astronomical year, and a Lunar year which is their civil year.
The lengths of the various years are as follows according to modern calculations: It is noon of local time on any day when the Sun reaches its highest point in the day. It is to be specially noted that the time shown by clocks and watches at any particular day is hardly the correct local mean time.
Great care should be taken to see that watches and clocks, from which birth-times are recorded are accuitite. Therefore, the first thing is to ascertain the correct local mean time of birth. The local mean time of a place depends upon its longitude, evidently terrestrial.